A Sustainability Assessment Framework For Waterfront Communities
It is predicted that the global phenomena of Climate change will have far reaching effects and implications on different local urban systems. For incidence, global average sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 36 cm by the 2050s, and between 9 and 69 cm by the 2080s. Waterfront communities are the first to be affected by such impacts putting them at high risk. Planning tools are needed to assist these communities and increase their adaptive and learning capacities in the face of diverse challenges to their urban sub-systems.
The research investigates a number of sustainability frameworks and assessment rating systems for neighbourhoods and communities. It investigates the sustainable evaluation criteria carried out by three assessment rating systems. First is the LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, USA), the second is BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, UK), and the third is the Estidama PEARL rating system (UAE).Examples of waterfront communities which applied the previous rating systemsare analyzed in order to determine the applicability and relevance of these systems to waterfront communities in particular.
The research concludes with a proposed framework of indicators for waterfront communities. The similarities and differences between the different rating systems and featured indicators specific to waterfront planning applied in the analyzed examples, yet absent in the three rating systems, have informed the selection of indicators in the proposed assessment framework. The proposed framework could be an effective tool for the planning and development of a waterfront community in the MENA region. In order to validate the framework, theset of environmental and physical indicators were applied on the case study of Abu Qir waterfront, Alexandria, Egypt. Conclusions and recommendations are made that would enhance the resilience of this waterfront community and provide a comprehensive tool for its sustainable planning.
•Abdel-Shafy, H., & El-Saharty, A. (2007). RAINWATER ISSUE IN EGYPT: QUANTITY, QUALITY AND ENDEAVOR OF HARVESTING. Alexandria: Water Research & Pollution Control Department, National Research Centre, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries.
•Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. (2010, August). Estidama A to Z. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council,: www.upc.gov.ae
•Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. (2010). Estidama Excellence Projects. Abu Dhabi: Estidama.
•Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. (2010). The Pearl Rating System for Estidama: Community Rating System. Abu Dhabi.
•Academy Center Of Engineering Consultancy & Development. (2009). Project Proposal For Strategic Planning Of Abu Qir. Alexandria.
•Alexandria governorate. (1984). Alexandria comprehensive plan for 2005. Alexandria university.
•Alexandria Governorate, (1984). Comprehensive Plan Alexandria 2005. Comprehensive Master Plan Project, Final Report 1984.
•Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable? UK: Earthscan.
•BRE. (2009). Certification scheme for BREEAM COMMUNITIES. UK: BRE Global Ltd.
•BRE Global. (2006). Creating Sustainable Communities. UK.
•BREEAM communities. (2009). Improve, Measure & Independently Certify The Sustainability Of Planning Proposals. UK: BRE Global LTD.
•(2002). BREEAM Communities:Sustainable assessment framework. UK: BRE-Global.
•Breen, A., & Rigby, D. (1996). The New Waterfront. New York: McGraw Hill.
•Brundtland, & al., G. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
•Campbell, S. (1996) Green cities, Growing cities, Just cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development, Journal of the American Planning Association (summer 1996) [online]. Available at:
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdcamp/Ecoeco?Greencities.html [accessed 7/6/2005]
•Consultant Body For the follow up of Alexandria comprehensive planning. (2003). Abu Qir Economic Resources. Alexandria: Alexandria University.
•Consultant Body For the follow up of Alexandria comprehensive planning. (2003). Futuristic planning of Abu Qir. Alexandria University.
•Egyptian Green Building Council (EGBC). (2009). The GREEN PYRAMID rating system,. Egypt.
•El-Raey, M. (1999). “Impact of Climate Change on Egypt”. Retrieved July 14, 2009, from Environmental Software and Services: http://www.ess.co.at/GAIA/CASES/EGY/impact.html
•Gabr, M. (2009). Futuristic Vision For Urban Planning Of Abu Qir District- Alexandria. Alexandria: Urban Planning Center, College Of Engineering, Arab Academy For Science & Technology.
•Giovinazzi, O., & Giovinazzi, S. (2008). Waterfront planning: a window of opportunities for post disaster reconstruction. Italy: i-Rec.
•Giovinazzi, O., & Moretti, M. (March 2010). Port Cities and Urban Waterfront: Transformations and Opportunities. TeMaLab journal of Mobility, Land Use and Environment, Selected papers 2009 , Vol 3 - SP - (P.57 - 64).
•Goddio, F. (2007). EGYPTIAN MONUMENTS. Retrieved september 25, 2007, from EGYPT SITES: www.egyptsites.co.uk/lower/delta/western/abuqir.html
•GOPP. (1997). General plan for Alexandria city For 2017, Cairo, Egypt
•Hamouda, A., & Abdel Salam, K. (January, 2010). Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats:Studies in the Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt. Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science , Vol. 1(1). pp. 011-022.
•Hall Peter, Pfeiffer Ulrich (2000), Urban Future 21. A Global Agenda For Twenty First Century Cities, London, E& FN Spon, 363pp., ISBN 0-415-24075-1
•Hansen, L. (2008). "Rising Sea Levels Threaten Egypt's Ancient Cities". Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89660898
•International Centre Cities on Water. (2005). Waterfront redevelopment as strategic factor of urban regeneration. Venice (Italy): International Centre Cities on Water.
•JULIEN, A. (2006). BREEAM VS LEED. SUSTAIN' , vo.9, i06, p.30-33.
•Kamel, W. (2002). Integrated Environmental Study Of Abu Qir. Alexandria.
•M.Dill, P., & J.Bedford, P. (2001). MAKING WAVES: PRINCIPLES FOR BUILDING TORONTO’S WATERFRONT, CENTRAL WATERFRONT PART II PLAN. Toronto.
•Marshall, R. (2001). Waterfronts in post-industrial cities. Spon Press.
•Merz, S. K. (2009). BREEAM Communities- Media city. Retrieved June 12, 2010, from BREEAM Communities: www.breeam.org/communities
•Ministry of state for Environmental Affairs. (2007). Environment 2006- Number of garbage recycling factories. Alexandria: Alexandria Governorate- Comprehensive plan 2015.
•Munda, G (2001) Indicators and evaluation tools for the assessment of urban sustainability [online]. Available at: www.h-economicauab.es/cat/papers/10-2001.pdf [accessed 23/5/2003]
•Nasr, S., El-Raey, M., El-Shenawy, M., Okbah, M., Abulsoeud, A., El-Hattab, M., et al. (2003). Assessment of Water Quality of Abu-Qir Bay Along The Mediterranean Coast Of Egypt. Alexandria: Institute of Graduate Studies & Research, Alexandria University.
•Owens, S. and Cowell, R. (2002) Land and Limits – Interpreting sustainability in the planning process. London: Routledge.
•Palmer, A. (2008). “Rising Sea Levels, The World Bank Report”. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.theworldincrisis.com/artman2/publish/climate/Rising_Sea_Levels.shtml
•Rydin Y, Holman N and Wolff E (2003) Local Sustainability Indicators,Local Environment, 8 (6), pp. 581–589.
•Said, R. (2001). Sunken treasures, sunken myths,. Al-Ahram Weekly Online , Issue No.553, 27 Sep. - 3 Oct.
•Tanguay, G., J., Rajaonson, Lefebvre, J-F & Lanoie, P. (2009) Measuring the sustainability of cities: A survey-based analysis of the Use of Local Indicators. CIRANO: Scientific series, 2009s-02.
•Toronto Waterfront Design Initiative. (2002). Urban Design Report 1 . Toronto: Toronto Waterfront Revitalization Corporation.
•TORONTO WATERFRONT REVITALIZATION CORPORATION. (2005). EAST BAYFRONT PRECINCT PLAN. TORONTO: TORONTO WATERFRONT REVITALIZATION CORPORATION.
•TORONTO WATERFRONT REVITALIZATION CORPORATION. (2005). EAST BAYFRONT PRECINCT PLAN., (pp. 11-20). Toronto.
•Toronto, W. (2008). LEED for Neighbourhood Development. Toronto: Credit Valley Conservation Authority – Strategic Sustainability Workshop.
•USGBC, C. f. (2009). LEED for Neighborhood Development. United States: U.S green building council.
•Vallega, A. (2001). Urban waterfront facing integrated coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management, ElSevier , Volume 44, P.379–410.
•Waterfront Toronto. (2009). Mandatory Green Building Requirements. Toronto.
•Waterfront Toronto. (March 2010). Waterfront Toronto Environmental Management Plan for Project-Related Activities. Toronto.
•World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). The Brundtland Report. Retrieved May 17, 2009, from Our Common Future, New York: Oxford University Press: http://www.anped.org/media/brundtland-pdf.pdf.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2015 Sally Said Eldeeb, Rania Abdel Galil, Alaa Eldin Sarhan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
eISSN: 2356-8569 pISSN: 2356-8518