Sustainable Management of Climate Change: The Case of the Middle East and North Africa Region
Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world. Particularly vulnerable are arid and low-laying coastal areas, conditions that prevail through most of the Middle East and North Africa [MENA]. This region is an economically diverse one, including both the oil-rich economies in the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to their population. However, with about 23 percent of MENA’s population living on less than $2 a day, it is imperative that the climate change management strategies adopted be cost-effective and emphasize economic, social and human development while addressing the concerns arising from anthropogenic climate change.
Over the past decades several national and international mechanisms were developed in an attempt to reduce the emissions considered to be mainly responsible for climate change, and to assist in coping with the adverse effects that are beginning to occur as a result of climate change. Unfortunately, many of these approaches are presently associated with economic penalties that often adversely affect the socio-economic welfare of the populace, particularly in low-, and medium-income countries. In this regard, it is informative to note the experience recently gained by Trinidad and Tobago [T&T] in its attempt to reduce GHG emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industrial and agricultural sectors. Using appropriate decision making tools and a policy environment based on a combination of regulations and incentives, the environmental challenges can be turned into a vehicle for sustainable development.
This paper discusses the factors that need to be considered while developing a sustainable climate change management approach for the MENA region and develops some recommendations that may be essential for achieving the desired climate change mitigation/adaptation actions while minimizing social disruption.
Abaza H., 2008, Financing of Environment Programmes: Private-Public Partnership, in Arab Environment: Future Challenges, M. K. and N. W. Saab Edit., Report of The Arab Forum For Environment And Development, 2008.
Abdel Gelil I., 2009. GHG Emissions: Mitigation Efforts in the Arab Countries, in Arab Environment: Climate Change, M. K. and N. W. Saab Edit., Report of The Arab Forum For Environment And Development, 2008.
Babiker M. and M. Fehaid, 2011, Climate Change Policy in the MENA Region: Prospects, Challenges, and the implication of Market Instruments, Economic Research Forum paper # 588.
Boodlal, D. and A. M. Al Taweel. 2013. Sustainable Reduction of GHG Emissions: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago, Submitted for publication in “Process Safety and Environmental Protection”. Institution of Chemical Engineers (UK).
Boyd A., 2013. http://www.mapsprogramme.org/normalising-apples-and-oranges-comparing-trade-offs-for-pro-poor-mitigation-options/ (last accessed March 16th, 2013).
Burton I., S. Huq, B. Lim, O. Pilifosova, and E.L. Schipper. 2002. From impacts assessment to adaptation to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy, Climate Policy 2: 145-159.
Clapp, C., G. Briner, and K. Karousakis, 2010, Low-emission development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and policy lessons, Report # JT03292873, OECD/IEA.
Fattouh, B. and L. El-Katiri, 2012. Energy Subsidies in the Arab World. Arab Human Development Report, Research Paper Series. United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Arab States.
Gomer S. and Lewis A., 2008. An Australian Cost Curve for Greenhouse Gas Reduction. Mckinsey and Company.
Klawitter J., 2011, Implications of Climate Change on Energy and Security in the MENA Region http://www.mei.edu/ , (last accessed March 15th, 2013)
ngv. 2012, http://www.ngv2012.com/ (last accessed March 24th, 2013).
Nakhooda S., A. Caravani, P. Seth and L. Schalatek, 2012. Climate Finance for the Middle East and North Africa: Confronting the challenges of climate change, Heinrich Böll Stiftung North America.
Saidi N. H., 2012, Harnessing Green Sukuk for sustainable development in MENA, www.hawkamah.org/.(most (last accessed, March 24th, 2013)
Tolba M. K., 2008, Integrating Environment in Development Planning, in Arab Environment: Future Challenges, M. K. and N. W. Saab Edit., Report of the Arab Forum for Environment And Development, 2008.
Ugursal V. I., 2013, Energy Use and Energy Conservation. Chapter 21 in The World Scientific Handbook of Energy, edited by Gerard M Crawley, World Scientific Publishing Co., 2013.
Verner D. ed. 2012. Adaptation to a Changing Climate in the Arab Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank. DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9458-8.
Wingqvist G. Ö. and O. Drakenberg, 2010, Environmental and Climate Change Policy Brief - MENA1
World Bank Databank, 2013. http://databank.worldbank.org/ (Last accessed March 18, 2013).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2015 Adel M. Al Taweel, V. Ismet Ugursal, Donnie Boodlal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
eISSN: 2356-8569 pISSN: 2356-8518