Investigating challenges and opportunities of applying block-chain technology to reduce agrifood loss

Habiba Elrouby, Sahar Elbarky, Amal Sakr


Purpose: Agriculture plays a significant role in the Egyptian economy, accounting for 11.3 percent of the nation's gross domestic product. The agricultural industry constitutes 28 percent of the workforce, with agriculture-related employment in Upper Egypt surpassing 55 percent. However, there are many challenges facing the Egyptian agrifood sector as poor post-harvest infrastructure, exposure to high temperatures, and poor handling practices. Moreover, In response to these challenges, this research aims to investigate the prospective challenges and opportunities of applying blockchain to reduce food waste, improve agri-food security and enhance food supply chain traceability in the Egyptian agri-Food industry. The methodologies employed in this study were instrumental in achieving the study objectives, which were twofold: (1) To identify the main challenges and factors that influence the adoption of blockchain technology in the agri-food industry, drawing on existing literature, and (2) To determine the relative significance of potential barriers that may arise during the implementation of blockchain technology in the Egyptian agrifood sector.

Design Methodology/Approach: The investigation was conducted using a quantitative research design, first tracing the literature to identify issues related to the adoption of blockchain technology in the agri-food industry. Additionally, a questionnaire-based methodology was used to gather data. The sample consisted of 37 participants, who were conveniently picked from seven agricultural organizations in Egypt.


Findings: The findings give a full comprehension of the obstacles associated with the use of blockchain technology in the Egyptian agrifood industry which are “Scalability”, “lack of trust among users”, “lack of workforce expertise”, and “lack of Egyptian regulations governing blockchain technology adoption”. while the potential opportunities are agrifood supply chain “traceability”, “cooperation”, and “efficiency”. These findings provide a valuable contribution to enhancing management decision-making and digital strategies pertaining to the adoption of blockchain technology inside firms, as well as providing insights into efficient implementation tactics.

Research Implications/Limitations: This study contributes to the existing body of literature by exploring the potential of blockchain technology in improving agri-food security and mitigating agrifood loss in Egypt as a developing country. However, there is a noticeable lack of scholarly study about the use of Blockchain technology in developing countries. Also, blockchain technology still has some challenges and limits that need to be resolved. This calls for more research and study.


Practical Implications/Limitations: The findings of this study may provide agri-food managers, blockchain technology service providers, and governmental entities with useful insights that can be used in the development of effective strategies and regulations for the successful application of blockchain technologies within the Egyptian agrifood sector, with the end goal of reducing agrifood loss. However, this has yet to be proven and is just limited to the literature.


Originality: The current food security issue in Egypt presents a significant risk to the country's economy. The precarious condition of Egypt's food security arises from the agricultural sector's insufficient capacity to adequately provide cereal grains, particularly wheat, and oilseeds, hence failing to satisfy even half of the nation's internal requirements. Moreover, Egypt depends on significant quantities of highly subsidized imports in order to guarantee an adequate and cheap supply of bread and vegetable oil for its population of 105 million individuals. There are several factors contributing to agri-food scarcity, one of which is food loss resulting from inefficient harvesting procedures and insufficient post-harvest management practices. Accordingly, this study presents an analysis of the potential challenges and opportunities associated with the use of blockchain technology in the agri-food sector of Egypt aiming to reduce agrifood loss and enhance food security. Additionally, this study is the first of its kind to comprehensively examine the barriers and facilitators of blockchain adoption in Egypt.


Received: 14 August 2023

Accepted: 15 October 2023

Published: 15 December 2023

Full Text:



Akram, S.V, et al., 2020. Adoption of blockchain technology in various realms: Opportunities and challenges. Security and Privacy, 3(5), p. 109.

Al-Rakhami, M.S & Al-Mashari, M., 2021. A blockchain-based trust model for the Internet of Things supply chain management, Sensors., 21(5), p. 1759.

Awwad, M., Kalluru, S.R., Airpulli, V.K., Zambre, M.S., Marathe, A. and Jain, P., 2018, September. Blockchain technology for efficient management of supply chain. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (pp. 440-449).

Azzi, R., Chamoun, R.K. and Sokhn, M., 2019. The power of a blockchain-based supply chain. Computers & industrial engineering, 135, pp.582-592.

Badsha, S., Vakilinia, I. & Sengupta, S, 2020. Blockchain based cybersecurity information sharing with fine grained access control. s.l., IEEE, pp. 0317-0323.

Caro., M. P., Ali, M. S., Vecchio, M. & Giaffreda, R., 2018. Blockchain-based traceability in Agri-Food supply chain management: A practical implementation. Tuscany, IoT Vertical and Topical Summit on Agriculture-Tuscany (IOT Tuscany), pp. 1-4.

Chang, Y., Iakovou, E. & Shi, , W., 2019. Blockchain in global supply chains and cross border trade: A critical synthesis of the state-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Production Research, 58(7), p. 2082–2099.

Chauhan, A., Malviya, O.P., Verma, M. and Mor, T.S., 2018, July. Blockchain and scalability. In 2018 IEEE international conference on software quality, reliability and security companion (QRS-C) (pp. 122-128). IEEE.

Davis, F.D., 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly, pp.319-340.

Dede, S., Köseo, M. C. & Yercan, H. F., 2021. Learning from Early Adopters of Blockchain Technology:A Systematic Review of Supply Chain case studies. Technology Innovation Management Review, 11(6), pp. 19-31.

Dutta, P., Choi., T. M., Somani, S. & Butala, R., 2020. Blockchain technology in supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research opportunities. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 142, p. 102067.

El-Kady, G. & Samrat, R., 2021. An analysis of Blockchain in Supply Chain Management: System Perspective in Current and Future Research. International Business Logistics Journal (IBL), 1(2), pp. 28-38.

El-Zonkoly, A., 2021. Feasibility of blockchain-based energy trading within islanded microgrids in Alexandria, Egypt. Journal of Energy Engineering., 147(3), p. 04021009..

Elisa, N., Yang, L., Li, H., Chao, F. and Naik, N., 2020. Consortium blockchain for security and privacy-preserving in E-government Systems. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14234.

Etemadi , N., Gelder, P. V. & Strozzi, F., 2021. An ISM Modeling of Barriers for Blockchain/Distributed Ledger Technology Adoption in Supply Chains towards Cybersecurity. Sustainability, 13(9), p. 4672.

Facchini, F., Silvestri, B., Digiesi, S. & Lucchese, A., 2022. Agri-food loss and waste management: Win-win strategies for edible discarded fruits and vegetables sustainable reuse. innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies., p. 103235.

Farouk, M. & Darwish, S. M., 2020. Reverse Logistics Solution in e-Supply Chain Management by Blockchain Technology.. Egyptian Computer Science Journal, 44(1).

Fatouh, T., Bayoumi, E. & Orlof, M., 2022. Investigating the Impact of the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict on the Egyptian Market: Insights from Multiple Sectors. International Business Logistics Journal (IBL), 2(2), pp. 93-94.

Feng, H. et al., 2020. Applying blockchain technology to improve agri-food traceability: A review of development methods, benefits, and challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 260, pp. 1-14.

Feng, T., 2016. An agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on RFID & blockchain technology. 13th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM), June, pp. 1-6.

Gurtu, A. & Johny, J., 2019. Potential of blockchain technology in supply chain management: a literature review. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 29 October, Issue 0960-0035, pp. 881-900.

Gamal, S. & Aref, M.M., 2022. Challenges and Opportunities of Blockchain Integration in the Egyptian Banks: A Qualitative Analysis.. In: Digital Economy, Business Analytics, and Big Data Analytics Applications, p. 469–485.

Gruchmann, T., Elgazzar, S. and Ali, A.H., 2023. Blockchain technology in pharmaceutical supply chains: a transaction cost perspective. Modern Supply Chain Research and Applications, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 115-133.

Hanafy, K., 2021. Future of Logistics. International Business Logistics Journal (IBL), 1(1), p. 3.

Hellani, H., Sliman, L., Samhat, A. E. & Exposito, E., 2021. On Blockchain Integration with Supply Chain: Overview on Data Transparency. Logistics, 5(3), p. 46.

Kamble, S. S., Gunasekaran, A. & Sharma, R., 2020. Modeling the blockchain enabled traceability in agriculture supply chain. International Journal of Information Management, Volume 52, p. 101976.

Kamel, I.M. & El Bilali, H., 2022. Agri-Food Sustainability and Food Security in Egypt. In Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. s.l., Cham: Springer International Publishing., pp. 443-458.

Kamilaris , A., Fonts, A. & X., F., 2019. The rise of blockchain technology in agriculture and food supply chains. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 91, pp. 640-652.

Seren, K.A.Y.A. and Turgut, M., 2019. Blockchain technology in supply chain. The Journal of International Scientific Researches, 4(2), pp.121-134.

Kennard, N.J. and Bamford, R.H., 2020. Urban agriculture: opportunities and challenges for sustainable development. Zero Hunger, pp.929-942.

Kodym, O., Kubáč, . L. & Kavka, L., 2020. Risks associated with Logistics 4.0 and their minimization using Blockchain. Open Engineering, 10(1), pp. 74-85..

Kshteri, N., 2018. Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives.. International Journal of Information Management, 1 April, Volume 39, pp. 80-89.

Kumar, N.M & Mallick, P.K., 2018. Blockchain technology for security issues and challenges in IoT. Procedia computer science, Volume 132, pp. 1815-1823.

Marcu, A. et al., 2015. Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat. Public Underst Science, Volume 24, p. 547–562.

Mohanta, , B. K., Panda , S. S. & Jena, D., 2018. An overview of smart contract and use cases in blockchain technology.. Bengaluru, India, IEEE, pp. 1-4.

Morkunas, V.J, Paschen, J. & Boon, E., 2019. blockchain technologies impact your business model. Business Horizons., 62(3), pp. 295-306.

Nowiński, W & Kozma, M, 2017. How can blockchain technology disrupt the existing business models? Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), pp. 173-188..

Organization, F. A., 2019. Food Agriculture Organization. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 7 July 2023].

Osei, R., Medici, M., Hingley, M. & Canavari, M., 2021. Exploring opportunities and challenges to the adoption of blockchain technology in the fresh produce value chain.. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 6(2), p. 560–577..

Pakseresht, A., Yavari, A., Kaliji, S.A & Hakelius, K., 2022. the intersection of blockchain technology and circular economy in the agri-food sector.. Sustainable Production and Consumption., 35(3), pp. 260-274.

Patelli, N. & Mandrioli, M., 2020. Blockchain technology and traceability in agrifood industry. Journal of Food and Science, 85(11), pp. 3663-4079.

Prewett, K.W., Prescott, G.L & Phillips, K., 2020. Blockchain adoption is inevitable—Barriers and risks remain.. Journal of Corporate accounting & finance., 31(2), pp. 21-28.

Prux, P. R., Momo, F. D. & Melati, C., 2018. Opportunities and challenges of using blockchain technology in government accounting in Brazil. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 29 December 2021].

Rawat, D. B., Chaudhary, V. & Doku, R., 2020. Blockchain Technology: Emerging Applications and use cases for secure and trustworthy smart systems. Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy, 10 November, Volume 1, pp. 4-18.

Ray, P., Harsh, H. O., Daniel, A. & Ray, A., 2019. Incorporating Block Chain Technology in Food Supply Chain. International Journal of Management Studies, January, VI,(1(5)), pp. 2231-2528.

Rejeb, A. et al., 2020. Blockchain Technology in the Food Industry: A Review of Potentials, Challenges and Future Research Directions. Logistics, 4(4), p. 27.

Routroy, S. & Behera, A., 2016. Agriculture supply chain: A systematic review of literature and future research. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, 7(3), pp. 275-302.

Sanka, A.I. & Cheung, R.C, 2021. A systematic review of blockchain scalability: Issues, solutions, analysis, and future research. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Volume 195, p. 103232.

Srivastava, A. & Dashora, K., 2022. Application of blockchain technology for agrifood supply Management: a systematic literature review on benefits and challenges. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 29(10), pp. 3426-3442.

Swan, M., 2015. Blockchain: Blueprint for a new economy. First Edition ed. U.S.A: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Takahashi, H & Lakhani, U, 2019. Voting blockchain for high security NFT.. s.l., IEEE, pp. 358-361.

Tan, B., Yan, J., Chen, S. & Liu, X., 2018. The Impact of Blockchain on Food Supply Chain: The Case of Walmart. Switzerland, Springer, Cham.

Tan, W.K.A. and Sundarakani, B., 2021. Assessing Blockchain Technology application for freight booking business: A case study from Technology Acceptance Model perspective. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, 14(1), pp.202-223.

Vern, P, Panghal, A. & Mor, R.S. et al, 2023. Influential barriers to blockchain technology implementation in agri-food supply chain. Operations Management Research, 15 June.

Vu, N., Ghadge, A. & Bourlakis, M., 2021. Blockchain adoption in food supply chains: a review and implementation framework.. Production planning and control., 34(6), pp. 506-523.

Wang, Y., Singgih, M., Wang, J. & Rit, M., 2019. Making sense of blockchain technology: How will it transform supplychains?. International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 211, pp. 221-236.

Wenhua, Z., et al., 2023. Blockchain technology: security issues, healthcare applications, challenges and future trends.. Electronics., 12(3), p. 546.

Wunderlich, S., 2021. Food supply chain during pandemic: changes in food production, food loss and waste.. International Journal of Environmental Impacts, 4(2), pp. 101-112.

Yadlapalli, A., Rahman, S. & Gopal, P., 2022. Blockchain technology implementation challenges in supply chains – evidence from the case studies of multi-stakeholders. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 33(5), pp. 278-305.

Zhao, G., Liu, S., Lopez, C., Lu, H., Elgueta, S., Chen, H. and Boshkoska, B.M., 2019. Blockchain technology in agri-food value chain management: A synthesis of applications, challenges and future research directions. Computers in industry, 109, pp.83-99.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Habiba Elrouby, Saher Elbarky, Amal Sakr

International Business Logistics
E-ISSN: 2735-5969
P-ISSN: 2735-5950

Published by:
Academy Publishing Center (APC)
Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT)
Alexandria, Egypt